Term: Anaesthesia
Definition: Anaesthesia refers to the practice of administering medications either by injection or by inhalation (breathing in) that blocks the feeling of pain and other sensations, or that produce a deep state of unconsciousness that eliminates all sensations, which allows medical and surgical procedures to be undertaken without causing undue distress or discomfort.
Term: ACL
Definition: Anterior Cruciate Ligament
Term: Arthroplasty
Definition: Reconstructive surgery of a joint (or joints) to restore motion because of ankylosis or trauma or to prevent excessive motion.


Term: Bankart Lesion
Definition: Avulsion of the anterior glenoid labrum which is usually associated with anterior shoulder dislocations.
Term: Biomechanics
Definition: The application of mechanical laws to living structures, specifically to the locomotor system of the human body.
Term: Brachial Plexus
Definition: The Brachial Plexus is a network of nerves that originate in the neck region and branch off to form most of the other nerves that control movement and sensation in the upper limbs, including the shoulder, arm, forearm, and hand.
Term: Bunion
Definition: Overgrowth of bone on the dorsal surface of the metatarsal head or dorsal malposition of the first metatarsal.


Term: Carpal tunnel syndrome
Definition: A condition caused by pressure to the median nerve within the wrist or carpal tunnel causing pain, tingling and numbness.
Term: Cerebral Palsy
Definition: A general term applied to central nervous system disorders found at birth or infancy and affecting muscle control.
Term: Club Feet
Definition: Turning of the heel inward with increased plantar fexion (the toe-down motion of the foot at the ankle).
Term: Cubital tunnel syndrome
Definition: A similar condition to carpal tunnel syndrome, causing numbness, pain and tingling in the ring and little fingers


Term: Dupuytren's contracture
Definition: A disabling hand disorder in which thick, scar-like tissue bands form within the palm and may extend into the fingers. It can cause restricted movement, bending the fingers into an abnormal position.


Term: Extensor tendon
Definition: A tendon which serves to extend a finger or hand.


Term: Flexor tendon
Definition: A tendon which serves to bend a finger or hand.
Term: Flat Foot
Definition: Condition in which one or both arches have flattened out.
Term: Flap
Definition: Tissue moved around the body with an intact blood supply


Term: General anaesthesia
Definition: Drugs and/or gases used during an operation to relieve pain and alter consciousness.
Term: Graft
Definition: Tissue taken from other parts of the body


Term: Hand Therapy
Definition: The treatment of hand disease, injury or deformity by physical methods such as massage, heat treatment, and exercise rather than by drugs or surgery. A mixture of physiotherapy and occupational therapy specifically for hand problems
Term: Hammer Toe
Definition: Variety of deformities on the second to fifth toes.
Term: Hill-Sachs lesion
Definition: Bony defect in the humeral head caused by a shoulder dislocation
Term: Hip Dysplasia
Definition: Failure of normal bony modeling of the hip socket


Term: Internal Glenoid Impingement
Definition: Pain syndrome caused by abrasion of the posterior labrum and rotator cuff.
Term: Intravenous sedation
Definition: Sedatives administered by injection into a vein to help you relax.
Term: Intra-articular Fractures
Definition: Intra-articular fractures are those in which the break crosses into the surface of a joint. They always result in some degree of cartilage damage. In addition to the usual considerations in fracture management, the relative position of the bone fragments and their relationship to ligament attachments are critical.


Term: Kinematics
Definition: That phase of mechanics which deals with the possible motions of a material body.


Term: Labrum
Definition: A fibrocartilaginous supporting structure which surrounds the glenoid bone in the shoulder.


Term: Malunion
Definition: State of healing of the bone in which bone unites but in an abnormal position and/or alignment.
Term: Microsurgery
Definition: High magnification to repair or reconnect severed nerves and blood vessels, common in trauma cases and often used to reattach severed fingers or limbs.
Term: Muscular dystrophy
Definition: A group of degenerative disorders of muscle resulting in atrophy and weakness.


Term: Non-union
Definition: Failure of a fracture to heal or unite


Term: Osteoarthritis
Definition: Osteoarthritis is the most common form of arthritis, affecting millions of people worldwide. It occurs when the protective cartilage on the ends of your bones wears down over time.
Term: Osteomyelitis
Definition: Inflammation of bone marrow, cortex, tissue and periosteum; usually caused by bacterial infection
Term: Osteophytes
Definition: Bone spurs or Osteophytes, are bony projections that form along joints, and are often seen in conditions such as arthritis. Bone spurs are largely responsible for limitations in joint motion and can cause pain.
Term: Osteotomy
Definition: Surgical procedure that changes the alignment of bone with or without removal of a portion of that bone.


Term: Paget’s Disease
Definition: Disease of excess bone removal and replacement with deformity.
Term: PCL
Definition: Posterior cruciate ligament.
Term: Polydactyly
Definition: The presence of extra fingers.
Term: Prosthetics
Definition: The science that deals with functional and/or cosmetic restoration for all or part of a missing limb (prostheses = artificial limb).


Term: Rotator Cuff
Definition: Muscles and tendons stabilising and moving the shoulder joint
Term: Rheumatoid arthritis
Definition: A disabling disease that can cause severe inflammation in any joint of the body. In the hand, it can deform fingers and impair movement.


Term: Syndactyly
Definition: When fingers are fused together at birth


Term: Tendon
Definition: A tough cord or band of dense white fibrous connective tissue that unites a muscle with some other part.
Term: Tenolysis
Definition: A surgical procedure to free a tendon from surrounding adhesions.
Term: Trigger finger
Definition: An abnormal condition in which flexion or extension of a finger may be momentarily obstructed by spasm followed by a snapping into place.


Term: Ulnar Nerve
Definition: A large superficial nerve of the arm that is a continuation of the medial cord of the brachial plexus, passes around the elbow superficially in a groove between the olecranon and the medial epicondyle of the humerus and continues down the inner side of the forearm to supply the skin and muscles of the little-finger side of the forearm and hand.


Term: Volar (palmar) Plate
Definition: The Volar Plate or probably better referred to as the 'palmar plate' can be defined as a very thick ligament that prevents hyperextension of the proximal inter-phalangeal joint from occurring. If there is enough force during hyperextension, the disruption may cause a rupture of the Palmar Plate at its insertion on the middle phalanx of a finger.


Term: Z-plasty
Definition: A surgical incision technique that creates small triangular flaps of tissue that help to close wounds over areas of the hand where bending or flexing is essential to function.